Ghalamzani of Isfahan
The art of ghalamzani or engraving on metal, has been popular since thousands of years and Isfahan is the main center of this art. Ghalamzani of Isfahan is very popular among Iranians and artists due to its beauty and durability, it is mostly use as decorative items. If you are interested in this piece of art, Persiana Travel and Tourism Agency group helps you to have deep understanding of this art.
About Ghalamzani of Isfahan
Ghalamzani is the art of carving excellent designs on different kinds of metals like copper, brass, silver and gold. In other words, Ghalamzani is the process of decorating and carving patterns on metal objects, especially copper, gold, silver, brass and creating lines and patterns with an especial pen and a hammer on metal objects. Ghalamzani of Isfahan is one of the traditional arts of Iran, which is in the category of industrial arts and metalworking. Isfahan is the hub of Ghalamzani or engraving. Copper metal has a special place in making Isfahan handicrafts. Copper Ghalamzani is done with beautiful designs on different dishes.
Among the beautiful designs, we can mention the engraving of flowers, which are inspired by old traditional paintings on copper utensils. For Ghalamzani, the inside or bottom of the container or tray, which is usually made of silver or gold, is filled with a solution of gypsum to reduce the noise of the pen and also to prevent the container from piercing during work. Then the desired pattern is drawn on the container and select the appropriate pen and place it on the surface of the container and hammer on the end of the pen to create patterns.
History of Ghalamzani of Isfahan
Ghalamzani of Isfahan has a very long history in Iranian culture that dates back to the Sassanid period. There are numerous documents that show the use of the art of Ghalamzani date back to thousands of years ago and valuable examples can be found in the Museum of Ancient Iran. Here it is the evolution of Ghalamzani art of Isfahan:
- Medes: During the Medes, between 6 and 7 centuries BC, metal sculptures with animal motifs related to Assyrians and Scythians were found in Sanandaj, which shows the continuous prosperity and importance of the art of Ghalamzani in present-day Isfahan.
- Achaemenian: In this period, we are witnessing the peak of the art of Ghalamzani and metalworking.
- Seleucids: During the Seleucid period, the cities of Merv and Nessa were formed, and due to the influence of Greek handicrafts, the art of Ghalamzani was also influenced by it, and in the surviving works from this period, we see the presence of Hellenic styles on dishes.
- Parthians: In the Parthian period, the art of Ghalamzani continued in the same style and context of the Achaemenid period just with a slight change, so that Ghalamzani on silver, gold and bronze was added.
- Sassanids: In the Sassanid period, we see the peak of relations between the kings of Iran and Greece and Rome, which is why all the patterns and arts mixed in metals and the style of Ghalamzani of Isfahan are influenced by Greek and Roman styles.
- Islamic period: During this period, Iranian artists replaced the previous symbols with the design and role of indigenous myths and Islamic and religious motifs, which can still be seen in Ghalamzani of Isfahan.
Isfahan’s Ghalamzani is done in three general styles: Shirazi, Tabrizi and Isfahani. Shirazi style silver metal is used for Ghalamzani and apply the pattern of Persepolis, birds and flowers. Tabrizi style uses a smooth and shallow. Isfahani style also consists of 5 different styles, which are Isfahan’s Ghalamzani with the help of the pen movement with hammer.
Methods of Ghalamzani of Isfahan
Isfahan Ghalamzani utensils, have a special place among domestic and foreign customers. Ghlamzani with various plans and methods have been led to the amount of Ghalamzani production whose current methods include:
- Outstanding work: In this work, the job is performed on both sides of the metal making the outstood part on the metal sheet of high appreciation.
- Half outstanding or relief work: In this method, the background is hammered down by an Ghalamzani steel tool and therefore, the plan on the metal looks outstanding by some extent.
- Special picture: In this method of Ghalmazani of Isfahan, only the lines of the circumference of the design are engraved making tiny and multi – designed background without any outstanding part.
- Ghalamzani through metal removing: In this method, some part of the metal is removed by steal tools depressing the metal. In special cases, (if copper has been covered by tin) the red color shine and gloss of copper Can be observed beside the silver color of tin. this method of Isfahan is considered to be the oldest Among all the methods of Ghalamzani being performed in a similar course known as carving without hammer.
- Latticing: Another method of Ghalamzani of Isfahan is latticing. It is used by removing some whole parts of the metal, a netted shape will be created which is Performed by cutting tools and hammer creating a job like latticing with hack saw.
- Kuftehgari or gold blocking: The introductory periods are all similar in the steps above. First, selecting the metal. Then tar covering of behind the metal to absorb the shock of the hammer. After that, it is time to make designations on the material. And at last, Ghalamzani with different sorts of tools whose result will be decorating the metal with geometric and miniature designs which will be created through engraving, grazing or pressing the metal surface.
One of the delicacies of Iranian handicrafts is engraving on various metals. Ghalamzani art peaked in the Safavid period. It also has especial points and delicacy that many workshops are still engaged in this art. Ghalamzani of Isfahan is an example of original Iranian art as well as one of the main arts and handicrafts of Iran, which has been passed down from generation to generation and is now produced in its most beautiful and modern form in Isfahan.